Glossary: S

Sable -An animal whose hair is used for making fine, soft brushes. Also, see Kolinsky.

Salon - A large room, such as a drawing room, used for receiving and entertaining guests. A hall or gallery for the exhibition of works of art. A periodic gathering of people of artistic or social distinction. Or a commercial establishment offering a product or service related to fashion, such as a couturier or a beauty salon.

Sanguine - is a red chalk drawing medium. It comes directly from the earth. It differs from the pastel medium in that it has no binder; it is a natural element. 

Saturation - Intensity or saturation is how different a pure color is from grey. Often used for perceived "purity" of color, meaning, in effect, chroma or chroma relative to the maximum possible or envisioned. Saturation is not a matter of light and dark but rather how pale or firm the color is and is used in Photoshop, digital photography, or monitors.

Scale - Proportional relationship between an object represented in an artwork and the real thing. Something drawn 1/3 scale means all parts are removed 1/3 the original size.

Scaling Up - A mechanical method of copying a small sculpture on a larger scale by increasing all the measurements proportionately, using such measuring devices as a scaling board, caliper, or pointing machine.

Score -To use an instrument to roughen or scratch the joints of a clay sculpture before joining them. To strike a line to easily bend a paper.

Scoring - Inscribing or scratching with a tool in any medium.

Sculptor - An artist whose primary medium is three-dimensional art or sculpture.

Sculpture - An artwork made by modeling, carving, casting, or joining materials into a three-dimensional whole. Also, the process of making such an artwork. Clay, wood, stone, and metal are common materials used for sculpture.

Scumbling - This is a painting technique capable of creating smooth gradations, which is opposed to glazing. This technique uses a dry brush with no medium and semi-transparent paint over a dry, darker color, allowing the darker shade to show through. This technique requires the skill to deftly drag the brush while applying paint. The method results in a pearled opalescence, and the painting can also enhance a smooth, smoky effect.

Seascape - An artwork that represents the sea, ocean, or shore.

Secondary Colors - The halfway or intermediate mixtures between any two primary colors.

Self-Portrait - An artwork showing a likeness of the artist who created it.

Senses - The faculties of hearing, sight, smell, touch, and taste. An artwork may appeal to one or more of the senses.

Sfumato - refers to the subtle and minute gradation of tone and color used to blur or veil the contours of a form in a work of art, especially the lines. The Italian word sfumato (pp. of sfumare, 'to smoke') captures the idea precisely.

Shade - A hue mixed with black or otherwise darkened in value.

Shading or Modeling - A way of showing gradual changes in lightness or darkness in an artwork. Shading helps make artwork appear more three-dimensional.

Shape - Implies spatial form and is usually perceived as two-dimensional. It is distinguished from its surroundings by its outline. A shape encloses space and can be geometric (such as a circle or square) or organic (having an irregular outline). Shape is an element of art.

Silhouette - Images showing no interior detail set against a contrasting background.

Sketch - A quick drawing that contains little detail but captures the main features. A sketch is often used to explore a theme or plan another, more detailed work.

Simplification - Images with clutter can distract from the main elements within the picture and make it challenging to identify the subject. The viewer is more likely to focus on the primary objects by decreasing the irrelevant content. Clutter can also be reduced through lighting, as the brighter areas of the image tend to draw the eye, as do lines, squares, and color.

Simultaneous Contrast - The phenomenon in which a color appears to change due to the effect of an adjacent color.

Sky Holes - Openings or apertures within the silhouette of a tree through which the sky's light is visible.

Soft light - emanates from a diffused or comprehensive source, resulting in gradual fall-off, less noticeable highlights, and less contrast.

Space - Refers to the area in which art is organized. Shapes and forms are defined by the empty space surrounding them (negative space) and the space they occupy (positive space). Space is an element of art.

Spectrum - A continuum of pure hues distributed according to their wavelengths, as when white light is refracted through a prism.

Spotlighting - A concentration of light on the central focus of a scene.

Stand Oil is an oil painting medium similar to Linseed Oil but dries faster. This medium thins out the paint and reduces the number of brush strokes seen.

Stencil - A piece of paper, cardboard, plastic, or another material with a cutout design; an image is made when paint or ink is applied through the design to a surface underneath.

Still Life - This is a kind of panting wherein the subjects are not moving, usually food, fruits, flowers, pottery, etc.

Style - Refers to how an artist handles materials and elements in their art.

Subject - Person, object, or scene represented in an artwork; the recognizable topic.

Subtractive - Removing material from the starting form to create a sculpture.

Subtractive Mixing or Subtractive Method - is the mixing of color utilizing pigments, dyes, or gels.

Successive Contrast - The effect of an afterimage on the experience of a currently viewed subject.

Symbol - A form, image, icon, or subject representing an idea or meaning other than its outward appearance.

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