Glossary: P

Paint - animation of a brush splashing paint from a can as it stirs pigment dispersed into a liquid, called a vehicle, that includes a binder to make it adhere to itself and to the surface to which it is applied. Many can have a matte, semi-gloss, or glossy finish. Types of paint include tempera, watercolor, oil paint, gouache, enamel, encaustic, fresco, lacquer, oriental lacquer, acrylic and secco.

Painting - An artwork created using a brush or other tool to apply tempera, watercolor, oil, acrylic, or other paint to a surface. Also, the process of creating artwork with paints.

Palette - A flat board on which an artist mixes colors.

Pantone Matching System (PMS) - A color matching system developed by Pantone, Inc. Based on 14 standard Pantone primary mixing colors, it includes over 1000 shades. The Pantone Color Formula Guide is the printer's guide to the Pantone Matching System, representing shades on both coated or uncoated stock, along with the precise printing formulas to achieve each color. The fan format guide makes selecting colors easy and checking printed colors against a recognized and achievable standard. The Pantone Color Formula Guide is the essential color reference tool for printers and should be replaced by a new book every year to maintain accurate color communication.

Papier-mâché - Process of creating forms by covering an armature or other base with strips of paper soaked in a watery paste and then molding the strips. The form hardens as it dries.

Parabola - A plane curve formed by the intersection of a right circular cone and a plane parallel to an element of the cone. A plane curve is formed by the locus of points equidistant from a fixed line and a fixed point not on the line.

Pastel - Drawing tool, similar in shape to a crayon, made from a paste of finely ground pigment. Also refers to a tint of color.

Pattern - Refers to the repetition or recurrence of a design element, exact or varied, which establishes a visual beat. Pattern is a principle of design. Also, a plan or model is to be followed when making something.

Pentimento - (plural pentimenti) is an alteration in a painting, evidenced by traces of previous work, showing that the artist has changed their mind regarding the composition during the painting process. The word is Italian for repentance, from the verb pentirsi, meaning repent.

Permanence - The resistance of paint to various fading, darkening, or otherwise changing forms. See also lightfastness.

Perspective - Techniques for showing three-dimensional objects or scenes on a flat or nearly flat surface.

Photograph - An image recorded by a camera on film and printed on photosensitive paper. The image is recorded digitally and read and printed by a computer.

Photorealism - An international movement in painting and sculpture in the late 1960s and early 1970s characterized by the precise observation of subject matter, such as street scenes or portraits, often taken from actual photographs.

Pictograph - A highly simplified symbol of an object or action, i.e., Egyptian hieroglyphics.

Picture Plane - A term used to describe the picture's surface that can be imagined as a plane of glass behind which the elements of the image are arranged. Through various techniques, such as perspective and object overlapping, the artist creates an illusion of depth receding away from the picture plane.

Pigment - Powdery, dry, insoluble materials selectively absorb and reflect wavelengths of light to produce color. Natural resources are ground into an excellent powder mixed with a liquid base such as oil or water to make paint.

Plane - A flat surface.

Plate - In printmaking, a piece of flat material, such as metal, stone, clay, or wood, with a design on its surface is used to print an impression of the design.

Portfolio - Collection or sampling of an artist's artwork, arranged in a protective cover or folder for review or display.

Portrait - An artwork that features a person, an animal, or a group of people, usually emphasizing the face.

Positive Space - The space a form or shape occupies in an artwork.

Poppy Oil is an oil painting medium similar to Linseed Oil but has a slower drying time. This medium is used for lighter colors and white because it is less inclined to yellow.

Premixing - The practice of preparing organized paint mixtures on the palette in advance of painting. Also called a palette.

Primary Colors - In Isaac Newton's theory, these colors include red, yellow, and blue. In the CMYK system, they are the most miniature set of colors that can yield the most comprehensive possible gamut of mixtures. The CMYK system primaries include cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. In additive mixing, using colored lights, not pigments, the primary colors are Red, Green, and Blue.

Principles of Art or Principles of Design - The principles of art are rules or guidelines for art that should be considered when creating a piece of art. The principles include Movement, Unity, Variety, Balance, Emphasis, Contrast, Proportion, and pattern.

Print - An artwork created by pressing a design onto paper or another flat surface using a block or other object coated with a wet color. Multiple copies of a print can often be made by re-inking the block and repeating the process. See printmaking.

Printmaking - Process of creating prints, or multiple copies of a single image, using one of several techniques or media, i.e., a woodcut, an engraving or etching, transfer paper, photograph, or a mono-print.

Printing Block - is also known as a plate, made of various materials, including clay, wood, or metal. Designs are carved, etched, or created on the surface of the block. Ink or paint is then applied to the surface. Once papers are pressed onto the block or plate, an impression of the design is created or printed.

Proportion  Is the measurement of size and the number of elements within a composition. In ancient art, the proportions of forms were enlarged to show importance. This is why Egyptian gods and political figures appear more prominent in scale than ordinary people. Ancient Greeks found fame with their accurately proportioned sculptures of the human form. During the Renaissance, artists began to recognize the connection between proportion and the illusion of 3-dimensional space, producing the first accurate perspective drawings.

Provenance - Record of ownership for a work of art, ideally from when it leaves the artist's studio to its present location, thus creating an unbroken ownership history.

Purkinje Shift - A perceptual effect in dim light where the rods, most sensitive to bluish wavelengths, cause greenish or bluish hues to appear lighter in value.

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