Glossary: G

Gamut - The full range of color notes that can be mixed by a given set of primary colors; also, the region on the color wheel that represents that range.

Galkyd - Is a painting medium that is alkyd resin. It increases the fluidity of oil colors and speeds up their drying time. Oil paint in thin layers using Galkyd can be used within 24 hours. The viscosity of Galkyd is similar to traditional painting mediums made from linseed oil. Galkyd levels brush strokes and creates a strong, flexible paint film, leaving an enamel-like glossy finish. It is ready to use out of the container and will thin with odorless mineral spirits. Painters can add mineral spirits or Linseed Oil to thin the viscosity of this medium for glazing.

Gauge - To measure a particular unit of measure. Often, it refers to a device used to measure the thickness of sheet metal or the thickness of wire, sheet metal, or wire expressed in a standard system. (pr. gay) Also, see sizes of common nails, sizes of finishing nails, and tools.

Gel - A transparent material placed in front of a light to change the color amount or quality of light.

General to Specific - Refers to the typical progression in developing two- and three-dimensional compositions — beginning with the most general of shapes and forms — blocking in — progressing toward smaller shapes and forms, and increasing specificity of color, value, texture, etc. A painter usually moves from larger to smaller brushes. A sculptor generally moves from larger to smaller tools.

Geometric - Term used to describe shapes or forms mathematically defined or regular in appearance, such as circles, spheres, squares, or cubes (shapes with names).

Gesso - This is a primer that is an acrylic medium. However, it is widely used as a base coat for art canvases when oil painting.

Gestalt - A physical, psychological, or symbolic arrangement or pattern of parts so unified as a whole that its properties cannot be derived from a simple summation of its parts. It may also refer to a school or theory in psychology known as Gestalt psychology.

Gesture - A movement of the body or limbs that expresses or emphasizes an idea or attitude. Gesture is a form of non-verbal communication made with a part of the body and used instead of verbal communication or in combination with it. The language of gesture is rich in ways for individuals to express contempt, hostility, or approval towards others. Certain gestures have offensive meanings, although the meanings of such gestures can vary between cultures.

Gesture Drawing - A drawing was done quickly to show the main action lines or paths of movement.

Giclée - is the French word for "sprayed ink." A sophisticated printmaking process, typically produced on an IRIS ink-jet printer today, can produce millions of colors using continuous-tone technology. Also, a print resulting from this process is called an Iris print. Giclées are often made from photographic images of paintings to produce high-quality, permanent reproductions. The extra-fine image resolution in this printing process permits the retention of a high degree of fine detail from the original image, rendering deeply saturated colors with a broad range of tonal values. A giclée should be printed on a delicate fabric or archival white paper using bio-degradable water-soluble inks. After printing it, a giclee specialist should examine the painting with unique materials to make any necessary corrections and apply a final, thin, transparent coating for maximum permanence.

GIF - Graphics Image File format. A widely supported image-storage format was released in 1987 and promoted by CompuServe. It gained early widespread use of online services and the Internet. An excellent format for graphics is used on the World Wide Web (WWW), and there are also animated GIFs. (JPEG is better for photographs.)

Gild and Gilding - Applying gold leaf.

Glare - A transparent layer of paint laid over a passage to intensify, deepen, or modify a color.

Glaze - Melted glass coating fired onto pottery; applied as a liquid.

Glazing - Glazing is an oil painting technique. The glazing technique paints a translucent color over another dry color. The lower one glows through but is affected by the density of the top glaze, creating a misty or smoky effect. The effect is created by a transparent layer of paint spread over an opaque passage that has been given some time to dry. Light travels through the glaze and is reflected off the opaque layer below. This can cause a glowing effect similar to looking at a brightly lit white wall behind a film of colored cellophane. A glaze's thin, oily layers can facilitate the rendering of details that would be more difficult with opaque paints -- e.g., the complexities of skin tones. Glazing mediums, such as Linseed Oil or Galkyd, are used in this process.

Gloss or Matt Picture Varnish - Gloss or Matt Picture Varnish is a spirit-based varnish used on oil or acrylic paintings. It protects the painting for years as it dries to a gloss finish and will not turn yellow or bloom. Gloss and matt varnishes can be mixed to give a satin finish and removed with turpentine or white spirit.

Golden Hour Lighting - The light qualities of the first and last hour of the day, together with the effects of sunrise, sunset, and twilight. Also called the magic hour.

Gouache - Gouache painting is a highly versatile painting medium that offers artists quicker drying times than oil paints, better opacity than watercolors, and more opportunity for blending than acrylics. For all intents and purposes, gouache paints are watercolors mixed with an opaquing agent such as chalk or talc. This opaquing agent causes the paints to be less translucent than regular watercolors, which means that colors will not show through when another color is placed on top. The pigment-to-binder ratio is also much higher with gouache paints, which means less water is mixed into them.

Gradation - A smooth transition from one color note to another, changing in hue, value, chroma, or all three at once.

Graphic Art - Design and production of commercial artworks, such as signs, posters, advertisements, book jackets, and computer software.

Grisaille - This is type of underpainting is used in oil painting made of grey tones. It is a French term that means "grey." A Grisaille underpainting is entirely monochrome, near-monochrome, usually in shades of grey. This type of under-painting is used in preparation for glazing layers in color. This method was considered a quicker and less expensive way to paint back when colored paint was made by hand, or sometimes the technique was chosen for aesthetic reasons. Grisaille paintings resemble the drawings that artists from the Renaissance were trained to produce because they were easy for their assistants to reproduce. At the same time, the master was able to free up and design another painting.

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